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2018河南专升本英语非谓语动词的用法详解

2017-05-18 15:21:31 http://www.yeluzsb.com 来源:耶鲁专升本
专升本英语语法是重点内容,贯穿专升本的始终,同学们要着重复习。为了帮助18年河南专升本考生更好的运用这些语法知识。耶鲁专升本英语老师根据教学经验,总结了英语非谓语动词的用法~
  专升本英语语法是重点内容,贯穿专升本的始终,同学们要着重复习。语法知识重在平时的积累以及做题时的训练。为了帮助18年河南专升本考生更好的运用这些语法知识。耶鲁专升本英语老师根据教学经验,整理出英语语法非谓语动词的用法,同学们可以参考一下:

  2018河南专升本英语非谓语动词的用法详解:

  1、我喜欢做饭。“ I like cooking. ”

  本句中,“like”(喜欢)是谓语。“cooking”(做饭)是宾语,用动名词形式。又如:“ He likes cooking. ”在英语中。谓语动词经常随着主语的人称、数而变化,但动名词作宾语时是不变的。

  2、对我来说,学英语不容易。“ It\' s not easy for me to learn English.”

  3、从太空看,地球是个蓝色的球体。 “Seen from the space, the earth is a blue sphere.”

  请比较这些句子的中英文。在这几个汉语句子中,做饭、学英语、从太空看分别作句子的宾语、主语和状语,但是其动词形式“做”、“学”、“看”没有变化。而在这几句英语中,“做饭”变成了cooking, “学”变成了to learn,“看”变成了seen.

  动词形式发生了变化,而且必须发生变化,因为这些句子有另外的谓语动词。因此这些动词叫做“非谓语动词”,又叫“非限定性动词”,他们没有人称和数的变化。这是英汉动词的巨大差别,也是中国人学英语的一个难点,同时也是在使用英语时容易犯错误的地方。需要特别注意的是:英语的单句一般只有而且必须有一个主谓结构,即一个谓语,如果单句中出现了另外的动词,这些动词就要改变形式。

  以上英语句子中cooking, to learn, seen 等具有动词特征,但是在句子中不能作谓语的动词形式,就叫动词的非谓语形式,也叫非谓语动词。

  我们再比较 “I like cooking.” 与 “He likes cooking.”这两句话主语不同,谓语动词like形式变了,但意义没有变化。而cooking 没有任何变化。再看 “It is not easy for me to learn English.” 和 “It is not easy for him to learn English.” “对我”for me, “对他”for him之后的 “to learn”没有任何变化。可以看出,非谓语动词是不随人称和数的变化而变化的,它们不受人称和数的限定,所以又叫“非限定动词”。

  动词在句子中除了充当谓语外,还可以起名词、形容词或副词的作用,在句子中充当主语、宾语、表语、补语、定语和状语。这就是动词的非谓语形式。当句子中需要用某种动作作主语、宾语或作某种修饰、说明的成分时,就要使用这种形式。

  动词的非谓语形式有三种:

  (1)动词不定式:to study (to + 动词原形)

  (2)分词:studying (现在分词)、studied (过去分词)

  (3)动名词:studying (形式与现在分词相同)

  动词非谓语形式仍具有动词的一般特征,可以带有宾语、状语等构成短语。

  动词非谓语形式有以下几种形式变化(以write为例):

  形态 主动 被动
动词不定式 一般 Towrite Tobewritten
  进行 Tobewriting  
  完成 Tohavewritten Tohavebeenwritten
  完成进行 Tohavebeenwriting  
现在分词和动名词 一般 Writing Beingwritten
  完成 Havingwritten Havingbeenwritten
  一般   written

  A、 动词不定式

  其形式是“to+动词原形”。 to是不定式符号,无词义。其否定式是在to前面加上not, never等否定词。 不定式可以有自己的逻辑主语,由for引出,加在不定式短语前面。

  如果不定式的逻辑主语是表示不定式动作的承受者,则不定式用被动语态。所谓逻辑主语,就是指非谓语动词等动作的执行者。由于非谓语动词等带有动词的特征,但又不是谓语动词,所以这个动作的执行者就不能称为主语,而在逻辑上又是这个动作的执行者,所以就称为逻辑主语。

  如果不定式逻辑上的主语是这个不定式所表示的动作的承受者,这个不定式一般要用被动语态。疑问词(who, whom,whose, what, which, when, where, why, how还包括whether)等后面加不定式构成不定式短语,可做主语,表语,宾语等。

  (一)作主语。 在不定式短语作主语的句子中,往往用 it 作形式主语,而不把不定式短语放在句子的后面。如:

  To die like that is a terrible thing.=It is a terrible thing to die like that.

  象那样死去是一件可怕的事。( it 作形式主语,把真正的主语to die like that放在后面)

  To know oneself is difficult.=It’s difficult to know oneself.

  有自知之明不容易。

  To tell a lie is not always easy.= It’s not always easy to tell a lie.

  撒谎并非总是容易。

  Never to offend anyone is my principle. 永远不得罪任何人就是我的原则。

  It’s against nature to remain single. 保持单身是违反自然的。

  To see is to believe.   眼见为实。

  For a dog to die like that is a terrible thing. = It is a terrible thing for a dog to die like that.

  一条狗象那样死去是一件可怕的事。(for a dog是不定式的主语)

  For one to know everything is impossible.= It’s impossible for one to know everything.

  一个人什么都知道是不可能的。

  For his brother John to go to sea seems natural.= It seems natural for his brother John to go to sea. 他兄弟John去当水手是很自然的事。

  It’ll be a great shame for you to forget her. 你要是把她忘了,那可太不应该了。

  It’s not proper for us not to accept the invitation. 我们不接受邀请不合适。(否定)

  It has not yet been decided when and where to discuss her resignation. 何时何地讨论她的辞职还没定。

  但是,下列形容词做表语时,不定式的逻辑主语由 of 引出:

  careless粗心的,clever聪明的,cruel残忍的,foolish愚蠢的,good好的,kind好心的 ,naughty淘气的,nice好的,polite礼貌的,right正确的,rude无礼的 ,silly愚蠢的,stupid傻的,unwise不明智的,wise明智的,wrong错误的,等等。

  为什么这些词要用 of 引出不定式呢?

  因为这些形容词都是描写人的性格和特点的形容词。“It is + 形容词 +of sb. + to do sth.”这样的句型更强调某人如何如何,可以改写为:“Sb. + be + 形容词 + to do sth.” 而“for sb to do sth.”这一结构更强调做某事如何如何。例如:

  1、 It is difficult for me to learn English. 更强调学英语很难,不能写成I am difficult to learn English. (这句话含有逻辑错误。)

  2、 It is unwise of you to go to the United States at this time. =You are unwise to go to the United States at this time. 强调你不明智。

  It’s very kind of you to come to see us off. =You’re kind to come to see us off. 你来为我们送行太好了。

  It’s unwise of him to drink and smoke so much.=He is unwise to drink and smoke so much. 他喝这么多酒、抽这么多烟是不明智的。

  It’s extremely cruel of John to kill animals. John杀害动物真是残忍之极。

  It’s rude/polite of Jack to say this to her.  Jack对她说这个,很无礼/礼貌。

  (二)作宾语及宾语补语。

  1、有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。常见的这类动词有:afford负担得起,agree同意,arrang安排,ask要求,attempt试图,beg乞求,begin开始,choose选择,claim声称,consent同意,dare敢,decide决定,decline谢绝,desire欲想,demand要求,determine决心,expect期待,fail失败,forget忘记,hate讨厌,help帮助,hope希望,intend打算,learn学习,like喜欢,long渴望,manage设法,mean打算,need需要,offer主动提出,plan计划,prefer更喜欢,prepare准备,pretend假装,promise答应,refuse拒绝,remember记得,seek寻求,seem好像,tend倾向,threaten威胁,undertake承担,volunteer志愿,want想要,wish希望等。

  I agreed to support him. 我答应支持他。

  He said he wanted to be a professor. 他说他想当教授。

  My daughter preferred to have eggs and milk for breakfast when she was in her twenties. 我女儿二十几岁时早饭喜欢吃鸡蛋和牛奶。

  2、不定式可以和how, which, what, who, whom, whose, when, where还有whether等词连用作宾语常跟这种结构作宾语的动词有:ask询问,advise建议,consider考虑,decide决定,discover发现,discuss讨论,explain解释,find out查明,forget忘记,inquire打听,know知道,learn学会,remember记得,show演示,tell告诉,teach教,think想,understand懂得,wonder想知道,等等。例如:

  I don’t know where to get so much money. 我不知道去哪里搞这么多钱。

  They haven’t decided whether to leave or stay. 他们还没决定是走还是留。

  此外,这种不定式结构还可作主语,表语,和介词宾语等。

  How to live a happy life is a difficult question to answer. 怎样过幸福生活是个很难回答的问题

  The question is whom to choose for the position. 问题是这个位置选谁。

  That was a discussion about how to increase their strength. 那是一次关于怎样增强他们力量的讨论。

  He said nothing about what to do with her. 关于拿她怎么办,他啥也没说。

  She asked my suggestion just now about where to go for her holidays. 关于去哪里度假,她刚才征求了我的意见。

  3、有些动词需要不定式作宾语补足语。这种动词常见的有:ask请求,advise劝告,allow允许,beg乞求,believe相信,call on号召,cause促使,compel强迫,command指挥,direct指导,enable使…能够,encourage鼓励,expect期望,feel觉得,force迫使,get使得,hate不喜欢,have使,hear听见,help帮助,inspire鼓舞,intend 打算,invite邀请,instruct指示,know知道,lead引导,let让,like喜欢,listen to 听,look at看,make 使得, notice注意到, observe观察,order命令,permit允许,persuade说服,prefer更喜欢,press施加压力,remind提醒,request请求,teach教,tell告诉,urge敦促,want 想要,warn警告,wish希望,等等。

  I asked my mother to buy a new bike for me. 我请求妈妈给我买辆新自行车。

  Tony knew his girl friend to be a shy college student. 托尼知道他的女朋友是一个害羞的大学生。

  They helped you to get on the bus, didn’t they? 他们帮你上了汽车, 是吗?

  4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。这样的动词有:feel觉得,have使,hear听见,help帮助,let让,listen to 听,look at看,make使,notice 注意,see看见,observe 观察,watch观看等,一类是感官动词,一类是使役动词。

  A policeman saw the accident happen. 一位警察看见事故发生。

  We listened to her talk about her experience abroad. 我们听她讲国外的经历。

  We’d be glad to have you work with us. 我们会很高兴有你和我们一起工作。

  上述help后面的不定式省掉to与保留to都可以。在被动语态中,上述动词后面的不定式要把省去的to还原。

  I heard the dog come in. 我听见那条狗进来。

  =The dog was heard to come in. 有人听见那条狗进来。

  I saw her go out by bike. 我看见她骑着自行车出去了。

  =She was seen to go out by bike. 有人看见她骑着自行车出去了。

  Can I help (to) lift this heavy box?   我可以帮着搬起这个沉重的箱子吗?

  You may as well help me (to)get things straight. 你不妨帮我把东西整理好。

  She helped the old woman (to) cross the street. 他帮助那位老妇人过街

  在had better(最好),would rather(宁愿),would sooner(宁愿),would (just) as soon(宁愿),cannot but(不能不,不由得不),cannot help but(不能不,不由得不)等成语后面也跟不带to的不定式:

  He would rather listen to others than talk himself. 他宁愿听别人也不愿自己说。

  He would sooner play than work. 他宁愿玩也不愿干活。

  You had better go away right now. 你最好立即就走。

  I would rather take this method. 我倒愿意采取这个办法。

  I’d rather walk than take a bus. 我宁可走也不愿坐公共汽车。

  She’d rather die than lose the children. 她宁可死也不愿失去孩子们。

  I’d rather not have eggs and bacon for breakfast.

  She’d sooner stay at home.

  I would as soon do it by myself.

  I would just as soon stay as go. 我宁愿住下也不愿去。

  We couldn’t but weep at the sad news.

  You can’t but respect them.

  Rather than和sooner than同义,都是“宁可”,“与其…(不如)”,“不是…(而是)”的意思。当它们放在句首时,其后跟不带to的不定式;在其它位置时其后的不定式可带也可不带to。

  Rather than risk breaking up his marriage, he told his wife everything. 他把一切都告诉了妻子,而不是冒离婚的危险。

  Rather than cause trouble, he left. 他宁可走开而不愿引起麻烦。

  Sooner than marry that man, she would earn her living as a waitress. 她宁可当女招待养活自己,也不嫁给那个男人。

  He decided to write rather than telephone. 他决定写信,不打电话。

  The manager believes it is important to invest in new machinery rather than to increase wages. 经理相信重要的是投资买新机器,而不是增加工资。

  Rather than John do it, I’d prefer to do the job myself. 与其让John干这件事情,我宁可自己动手。

  4、有些动词要求省掉to的不定式作宾语补语。

  在Why 起首的疑问句中跟不带to的不定式:

  Why not come with us? 为什么不跟我们一起来呢? =Why don\' t you come with us?

  Why not go for a game of tennis? 为什么不去打网球呢?

  Why not relax yourself? 为什么不放松你自己呢?

  Why not try to train your character? 为什么不培养你的性格呢?

  Why not give the $40 to Tom? 干吗不把那40美金给汤姆呢?

  For God’s sake, why bring that up again? 看在上帝的份上,干吗又提这事呢?

  Why split hairs over the color of the dress? 干吗对连衣裙的颜色吹毛求疵呢?

  Why run this risk?  干吗冒这个险?

  Why risk breaking the law? 干吗冒犯法的险呢?

  5、不定式作宾语而后面还有宾语补语时,常用it来代替不定式短语,而把真正作宾语的不定式短语放在补足语后面。常见的动词有:consider认为,feel觉得,find发现,make使,think认为,等等。例如:

  I think it best to go. 我想最好走。

  Do you consider it right to send our doctors over? 你觉得派我们的医生去对吗?

  I found it strange for her not to come today. 我发现她今天没来是很奇怪的。

  注意:hope希望,demand要求,suggest建议,这三个词不能跟不定式作宾补。

  错误的句子:

  I hope you to be happy. 我希望你快乐。

  I suggest you to take him seriously.  我建议你要把他当回事。

  We demanded them to give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

  正确的句子:

  I hope that you’ll be happy. 我希望你快乐。I suggest that you take him seriously. 我建议你要把他当回事。

  I advise you not to take him seriously.  我建议你不要把他当回事。

  We demanded that they give us a definite answer. 我们要求他们给个确切的答复。

  (三)作定语。

  不定式短语作定语时,一般放在被修饰的词之后,有些名词的后面常用不定式作定语。常见的有:

  ability能力,agreement一致,协议,ambition抱负、野心,anxiety焦急,attempt试图,campaign战役,chance机会,claim声称,courage勇气,decision决定,determination决心,drive努力,eagerness殷切的心情,effort努力,failure失败,hope希望,intention目的意图,motive force动力,movement运动、协议,need需要,opportunity机会,plan计划,promise诺言,readiness乐意,refusal拒绝,reluctance勉强不愿,resolution决心,tendency倾向,right权力,struggle斗争,threat威胁,time时候,way方法,willingness愿意,wish希望。

  与这些词相对应的形容词或动词常接动词不定式。如ability →be able to, refusal →refuse to等。

  作定语时不定式表示将要发生的动作。

  There is not any one to save him. 没有任何能救他的人。

  He’s a not a man to tell lies. 他不是那种撒谎的人。

  He’s a man to be trusted. 他是个可以信赖的人。

  He needs love to strengthen his broken heart.    他需要爱来给他那破碎的心以力量。

  I don’t understand his idea to send his son to the Sahara. 我不明白他把儿子送到撒哈拉沙漠的想法。

  I need to buy a box to hold my CDs.  我需要买个装CD片的盒子。

  This visit is a good opportunity to learn Chinese. 这次访问是学习中文的好机会。

  No investigation, no right to speak. 没有调查就没有发言权。

  Not to speak much is the best way to avoid trouble. 不多言是避免麻烦的最好办法。

  This is a good way to make money. 这是个赚钱的好方法。

  We were given some bread to eat.  给了我们一些面包吃。

  I’ve a lot of things to take care of in the office today. 今天我办公室里由于很多事情要处理。

  Have you got a key to unlock this door?  你有开这个门的钥匙吗?

  He needs a place to live in. 他需要有个住的地方。

  This is not a pen to write with but to draw with. 这不是写字而是画画用的笔。

  I have not a friend to talk with.  我没有能谈心的朋友。

  作定语时,也可以给不定式加上主语。例如:

  The order for the army to start has been given. 已经发出了让部队开始的命令。

  The power for science to serve mankind is limitless.  科学为人类服务的力量是无穷的。

  The letter for you to answer is placed on your desk..   要你回的那封信放在你办公桌上。

  (四)作表语,放在系动词之后。例如:

  To gamble is to commit suicide, but not to get rich. 赌博就是自杀,而不是致富。

  To criticize others is to make enemies. 批评别人就是树敌。

  To do everything is to do nothing.   什么都做等于什么也做不成。

  Perhaps the most popular way of relaxing is to participate in sports. 也许最受欢迎的放松方式就是参加体育活动。

  This matter is for you to consider. 这个问题是要你考虑的。

  These apples are for the guests to eat. 这些苹果是给客人们吃的。

  My hope is for all members to come together once a year. 我的希望是所有成员每年聚会一次。

  My advice is for you to apologize to her.  我的建议是你向她道歉。

  The question is where to go for help.  问题是到哪里求助。

  To respect others is to be respected.  尊重别人就是受到别人的尊重。

  To see her is to love her.  见到她就会爱上她。

  (五)不定式短语和疑问词连用 (who, whom, whose, what, which, when, where, how,还包括whether)

  (1)做主语。例如:

  Who to turn to is what she wants to know. 找谁帮忙是她想知道的。

  It’s problem what to do. 干什么还是个问题。

  How to be wealthy, healthy and happy will always remain a question mark. 怎样才能富有,健康和幸福将永远是个问号。

  (2)做表语。例如:

  The question is which to take first. 问题是先拿哪一个。

  What remains for you to explain is how to put the plan into practice and whose help to seek. 剩下需要你解释的是怎样实施计划以及寻求谁的帮助。

  The question is which of the methods to adopt. 问题是采取这些方法中的哪一个。

  (3)作宾语,常用这一结构作宾语的动词有ask, consider, decide discuss, explain, forget, find out, guess, inquire, know, learn, remember, see(=understand),show,settle(=decide),tell(=know),think,understand,wonder等。

  I’ve found out where to buy them cheaply. 我发现了在哪里买这些东西便宜。

  Do you remember when totch off the machine? 你记得什么时候关掉机器吗?

  I can’t tell what to do . 我说不好怎么办。

  How can you tell which button to press? 你怎么知道按哪个按钮?

  You know very well when to say what and how to say it.

  你很清楚什么时候说什么话以及怎样说。

  He can’t decide what time to leave or whether to leave at all.他不能决定何时离开或者到底是否离开。

  有些双宾语及物动词,也可用这个结构做直接宾语。常用的有tell, inform, show, advise, ask, teach,等。如:

  I showed her how to use the remote control.  我向她演示怎样使用遥控器。

  The salesman told him whichtch to turn on first. 售货员告诉他先开哪个开关。

  Will you advise me which to buy?   你建议我买哪个?

  Please inform me where to get the tickets. 请告诉我到哪里去弄票。

  (4)做定语。例如:

  I must find a pen with which to fill in this form(=to fill in this form with). 我必须找支钢笔填表用。

  He offered me some hot coffee with which to refresh me spirit (=to refresh me spirit with).

  他给我提供了点热咖啡提提神。

  Nobel began to seek ways in which to make the explosive safer to handle.诺贝尔开始寻找那种炸药操作起来更安全的方法。

  总之,河南专升本英语语法基础贯穿英语的各个题型,基础复习阶段,词汇和语法都是基础和重点。所以,大家要注意学习和应用。更多专升本英语复习资料,可以点击查看>>>>2018年河南专升本英语复习资料汇总

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