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2014年河南专升本英语语法考点总结(十七)

2013-12-12 15:25:03 http://www.yeluzsb.com 来源:
  一、分词的作用   1、作定语   (1)单个分词作定语,分词前置。如:   Thesleepingboyismyson.   Theexcitedpeoplerushedintothebuilding.   Alostopportunityneverreturns.   Heisaretiredworker.

  一、分词的作用


  1、作定语
  (1)单个分词作定语,分词前置。如:
  The sleeping boy is my son.
  The excited people rushed into the building.
  A lost opportunity never returns.
  He is a retired worker.


  (2)分词短语作定语,分词后置;分词修饰不定代词something等要后置;个别分词如give, left等作定语也后置。如:
  The girl standing under the tree is my niece.
  The building built last year is our library.
  This is the question given.
  There is nothing interesting.

 

  (3)过去分词作定语与其修饰的词是被动关系,相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。如:
  Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists


  2、作状语


  现在分词和过去分词在句中可以作时间、原因、方式、伴随、条件、结果等状语。


  Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.


  As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.


  Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.


  If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better. (条件)


  Walking along the street, I ran across my old friend.


  Bitten by a snake, he was taken to hospital. (原因)。


  Though defeated, he didn't lose heart. (让步)


  He lay on the grass, looking into the sky. (伴随)


  He came running to tell me the good news. (方式)


  注意:
  (1)选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是由主句的主语发出,分词就用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。试比较:
  (Being)Used for a long time, the book looks old.由于用了很长时间,这本书看上去很旧。
  Using the book, I find it useful.在使用的过程中,我发现这本书很有用。


  (2)分词作状语时,其逻辑主语必须和主句的主语一致,如果不一致,就用独立主格结构,即在分词前加上它的逻辑主语。现在分词的完成式主要用于作状语,一般不用作定语。
  When completed, the museum will be open to the public next year.
  Having suffered such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river.

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