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2014年河南专升本英语语法考点总结(十)

2013-12-12 15:25:03 http://www.yeluzsb.com 来源:
  非谓语动词考点重点总结:   在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式、动名词和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。   不定式:   一、不定式的作用  

  非谓语动词考点重点总结:


  在句中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式、动名词和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。
  不定式:


  一、不定式的作用


  1、作主语
  不定式作主语时,谓语用单数。往往用it 作形式主语,把不定式放在谓语后面。如:
  It took us two hours to finish the job.
  It is impossible for us to get there on time.
  It is very kind of you to help us.
  注意:(1)其他系动词如look, appear等也可用于此句型。


  (2)当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is …to…的句型。试比较:It is to negate my own idea to believe him.(错)
  To believe him is to negate my own idea .(对)
  (3)It is+ adj.+ of / for sb. to do sth. 结构中,当不定式的逻辑主语和前面的形容词可以构成系表结构时,用of, 否则用 for.


  2、作宾语
  (1)动词+不定式。如:
  He managed to escape from the fire.
  I find it hard to get along with him.(it 作形式宾语)
  注:下列动词通常用不定式作宾语:want, try, hope, wish, need, forget, know, promise, refuse, help, decide, begin, start, learn, agree, choose, get等


  (2)动词+疑问词+to , "特殊疑问句+不定式"相当于名词,作宾语。如:
  I don't know what to do next/ how to do it next.
  I can't decide when to go there.
  注意:不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语之后,用it 作形式宾语。如:
  I find it necessary to learn a foreign language.

 

  3、作宾语补足语
  (1)动词+宾语+不定式(to do )。如:
  He warned me to be careful.
  I want you to speak to Tom.
  What makes you think so?(不带to的不定式)
  注:可以用动词不定式做宾补的动词有:ask, tell, order ,want ,get, would like, like, advise, invite, allow, help, wish, warn, expect, prefer, encourage


  (2)表见解、看法的动词结构可为:动词+宾语+ to be 的不定式结构。如:
  We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.
  The book is believed to be useful.(被动语态)

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