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2014年河南专升本英语语法考点总结(五)

2013-12-12 15:25:03 http://www.yeluzsb.com 来源:
  二、动词的语态   1.概念与构成   英语动词语态有主动态和被动态两种。主动语态表示主语是谓语动词的执行者,例如:Shetakescareofthechildren.被动语态表示主语是谓语动词的承受者,通过be+过去分词构成,时态

  二、动词的语态


  1. 概念与构成
  英语动词语态有主动态和被动态两种。主动语态表示主语是谓语动词的执行者,例如:She takes care of the children. 被动语态表示主语是谓语动词的承受者,通过be+过去分词构成,时态通过be表示出来,例如:The children is taken care of by her.


  2. 被动语态
  主语是动作的发出者,用主动语态; 主语是动作的承受者,用被动语态。


  被动语态的构成: be+done (过去分词)+(by 动作的发出者)


  be 的变化形式很多,很多时态都有各自的被动语态。
  This book is written by GJM.    That book was written by Lu Xun.
  English is spoken in many countries.


  主动形式表示被动意义:
  1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive…The book sells well.  这本书销路好。This knife cuts easily.  这刀子很好用。2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, buildI was to blame for the accident.Much work remains.3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。


  3. 不用被动语态的情况:
  系动词无被动语态:appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn  /例: It sounds good.


  4. 被动语态的谚语:
  Give love and love will be given. 播撒爱,也会收获爱。
  Everything that is done in the world is done by love. 世上做成的每件事都是希望的功劳。
  Man is not made to defeat. Man can be destroyed but not defeated.
  人不是为失败而生的。 人可以被毁灭,但是不可以被打败。 (海明威<老人与海>)


  5. need/want/require/worth
  当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。


  典型例题The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. A. cleaning   B. be cleaned   C. clean   D. being cleaned答案A. need (实意V.) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有to be clean 则也为正确答案。

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