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河南专升本英语语法第四部分 虚拟语气

2013-12-12 15:34:03 http://www.yeluzsb.com 来源:
考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessary(important)that引导的主语从句;It is time (that)…句型中。 一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:   虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中

考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist 等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessary(important)that引导的主语从句;It is time (that)…句型中。
一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:
  虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:
1、I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.
  A. had known   B. have known   C. knew   D. know
  (答案:C。与现在的事实相反,从句用过去时)
2、Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?
  A. spoke   B. speak   C. had spoken   D. will speak
  (答案:A。与现在的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去时。)
  3、If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.
  A. would come   B. would have come   C. had come   D. came
  (答案为C。与过去的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时。)
二、if的省略形式  在虚拟条件句中, 如谓语包含were , had, should等词, 则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略if。
  1、_____ you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions.
  A. If I realized   B. Had I realized   C. Did I have realized that   D. As I realized
  (答案:B。虚拟条件句有时可以省略if,而将谓语中的过去式were,had,或should等移至主语之前。)
  2、_____, I should ask them some questions.
  A. Should they come to us   B. If they come to us   C. Were they come to us   D. Had they come to us
  (答案:A。与将来事实相反。)
  三、含蓄条件句
 有时一个假设的情况不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。常用with,without,but for。
  1、Without your help, we _____ so much.
  A. didn’t achieve   B. would not have achieved   C. will not achieve   D. don’t achieve
  (答案:B。这是一句含蓄条件句,条件暗含在介词短语without your help中,因此要用虚拟语气。)
  2、But for the rain, we _____ a nice holiday.
  A. should have   B. would have had   C. would have   D. will have had  (答案:B。)
  四、以wish(that)引导的表示“愿望”的宾语从句
  wish后的宾语从句中要用虚拟语气,而在虚拟语气中时态的应用类似在非真实条件中从句时态的应用。表示现在或将来的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去时);表示一个过去没有实现的愿望用:主语+wish +从句(主语+过去完成时);
  1、Peter wishes that he _____ law instead of literature when he was in college.
  A. could study   B. studied   C. had studied   D. would study  (答案:C)
  2、I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I _____ there.
  A. were   B. would be   C. had been   D. will be  (答案:C)
五、would rather+句子(过去时)
  1、I’d _____ you didn’t touch that, if you don’t mind.
  A. rather   B. better   C. happier   D. further  (答为案:A)
  2、I am too busy these days. I would rather all of you _____ next month for a dinner.
  A. come   B. would come   C. came   D. have come  (答案为C)
  六、以as if,as though引导的从句
  在as if,as though引导的从句中,如果谈论的是不可能或不真实的情况时,它们所引用的状语从句要用虚拟语气,动词形式和wish 后面的从中动词形式变化相同。
  1、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.
  A. knows   B. knew   C. had known   D. would have known
  (答案:B。as if(though)从句中非真实性情况用虚拟语气。本句表示说话人对现在的情况有所怀疑,所以用过去时。)
  2、You are talking as if you had seen them
  你谈的那么起劲,好像你真的见过似的。(表示想象中的过去的动作)
  七、以suggest,advise,insist等词后引导的宾语从句中,从句的谓语动词要用should+动词原形,should可以省略。类似的动词有:propose,order,demand,require,request等。
  1、The doctor advised that Mr.

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